Understanding Cement Article Directory

The Table below lists 31 articles - just click on the link to view your chosen article.

The articles can also be accessed using the navigation bar above, but you may find this Table to be more convenient.


Article title/link


Cement History

Cement History

A brief introduction to the history of Portland cement

Basic Definitions

Some basic definitions used in cement and concrete

Defines some components of cement and concrete, eg: "clinker", "aggregate"

A little basic chemistry

Some simple but essential bits of basic chemistry applicable to cement


Raw Materials

Raw materials used in cement production


Describes the basic components of a cement plant

Cement Kilns

Description of a rotary kiln, including wet and dry processes


Brief introduction to refractories in the cement kiln

Cement Mill

Describes the cement ball mill


Portland cement clinker overview

Illustrated description of a clinker nodule

Clinker: Cement chemistry notation

Describes cement chemists' quirky but useful notation

Clinker: reactions in the kiln

Describes the reactions in the kiln as the raw meal is converted to clinker

Clinker: compositional parameters

Describes Lime Saturation Factor, Silica Ratio (Silica Modulus) and Alumina Ratio (Alumina Modulus)

Clinker: combinability of mixes

Factors influencing how easily the raw meal may be combined to produce clinker

The Bogue calculation

Describes the Bogue calculation, widely used to estimate the proportions of clinker minerals

Cement Milling

Milling and gypsum addition

Variability of Portland cement

Discusses variations in cement performance

Cement hydration

Cement Hydration

Describes the process of cement hydration and the hydration products

Strength development in concrete

Discusses factors affecting concrete (and mortar) strength

Deleterious processes in concrete

Deleterious processes in concrete

Outlines the principal reactions that can adversely affect concrete (most are discussed in more detail in separate articles, see below)

Alkali-silica reaction in concrete

Illustrated discussion of the process of asr in concrete

Sulfate attack in concrete and mortar

Effects of sulfate attack, causes, conventional sulfate attack, delayed ettringite formation

Carbonation of concrete

Discusses the process of carbonation and how to test for it


Autoclaved aerated concrete

Describes the production of autoclaved aerated concrete

Cement analysis

Cement analysis

Introduction to cement analysis during the manufacturing process

Cement microscopy

Introduction to cement microscopy

Brief introduction to how microscopy of clinker is used to determine factors such as raw meal fineness and kiln conditions


Estimating w/c ratios

Discusses approaches to assessing the water-cement ratio of hardened concrete, with some reference images for you to have a go yourself

Measuring the porosity of mortar

Mortar porosity measurement using backscattered electron imaging

ASR and glass

Does cement react with glass? This article shows the answer...


Sea urchin spines are made of calcium carbonate and are stronger than they should be. A group from the University of Konstanz in Germany has found out why, and is researching whether this could have applications to concrete

Glenfinnan Viaduct

Article on one of the earliest poured concrete structures built in the industrial revolution

Concrete curing

Describes the effect on paste microstructure of poor concrete curing